Throwing disciplines of athletics

Among other things, from Homer's Iliad we know that even in ancient times throwing and batting competitions were held with stones. In modern athletics there are four different disciplines: shot put, hammer throw, discus throw and javelin throw. We give health tips to each of these athletics throwing disciplines.

Shot Put

In the shot put, a 7, 257 kg (16 pounds) bullet in the men's team, or a four-pound metal ball on the women's, is hit as far as possible by the athlete's arm exploding. The diameter of the ball is between 110-130mm for the men and 95-110mm for the ladies. For swinging a circle of 2.13 m (seven feet) is available, which must not be crossed and must be left after impact of the ball to the rear. For men, the world record is 23.12 meters, for women it is 22.63 meters.

Due to the increased physical effort, the upper extremity is endangered in all disciplines. The rotational movement leads to problems of the lumbar spine and blocking phenomena. Also typical are injuries of the hand and finger joints. In addition, it comes to muscle injuries of the adductor, especially the Stemmbein is affected. In the long term, radiocarpal roses often develop as a result of overload damage.

hammer throw

Although Hammerwerfen is now an Olympic discipline, its origins lie in medieval Ireland and Scotland. At that time, forging hammer throwing competitions were held before turning to weights on a stick in the first half of the 19th century. Today's whistle hammer consists of a metal ball on a steel wire. The weights of the hammer throw correspond exactly to those in the shot put, as well as the diameter of the Aushol circle is the same. The wire is 1.219m long (four feet) and is held by the athlete with both hands.

Hammer throwing is the only throwing discipline in which the wearing of gloves is allowed; Alternatively, the athletes can also use bandages. In addition to the above-mentioned typical injuries in the throwing disciplines, especially the trunk muscles are exposed to a heavy load due to the high centrifugal forces. The finger tendons and capsules can easily be damaged. Elbow syndrome can be a possible late damage, as well as the hips often suffer from long-term consequences.

discus throw

Discus throwing can be since 708 BC. Chr. Prove as Olympic discipline. The Greek word Diskos describes a plate or disc that was made of bronze in antiquity and weighed five to six kilos. The current discus, however, brings only two kilos in the men and a kilo in the ladies on the scales and is also much smaller than the antique disc.

The discus thrower was considered in ancient times as the athlete par excellence. A discus could also be used as a weapon and used in fighting games. In Greek mythology, however, there were unintentional deaths, such as when Perseus accidentally met his grandfather Akrisios with a discus.

In the discus throw, it is mainly on the right technique to bring the disc at the 1.5-fold body rotation around its own axis in the 2.5m diameter circle to a maximum acceleration. The discus throw contains the general risks of the throw disciplines described above, but is among those the poorest.

javelin

The spear was used as a weapon in the Stone Age. Greek mythology describes Herakles as an outstanding javelin thrower. The length of the spear is 2, 70m-2, 80m for males and 2, 20m-2, 30m for females. The weight is 800g or 600g.

The spear must be taken in the middle and after a short run with the tip in throwing direction. Among the various types of grip, the thumb-forefinger grip is the most commonly used. Javelin throwing has the highest risk of injury and long-term damage among the throwing disciplines. Since the spear is held partly above the head, tendon injuries of the rotator cuff are frequently the result.

In addition, injuries of the limb and the elbow are typical. In addition, javelin throwers often suffer from spondylolisthesis with consequences for the intervertebral discs, in the lower lumbar region, it can sometimes lead to bony breaks. Lengthy complaints also arise from extreme stress on the elbow capsules and the ulnar collateral ligament. As a late consequence, severe cases of osteoarthritis in the shoulder, elbow or hip joint are not uncommon.

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