What happens with a vaccine?
If a patient is vaccinated, he gets a vaccine under the skin or injected into the muscle or he swallows the drug. The vaccine contains the pathogens of dangerous diseases, such as influenza viruses, but not in concentrated form: it is mostly attenuated, non-viable germs in live vaccines or dead vaccines. In this active immunization, the antibodies of the vaccinee are activated. In passive immunization, the patient gets the antibodies for a particular pathogen injected. The antibodies on their part ensure that the immune system produces memory cells. If an infection occurs, the antibodies attach to the pathogens and render them harmless. Passive immunization usually only works for a few months. If patients have received the basic immunization immunizations, refreshing is enough every ten years.
Is skepticism about vaccination appropriate?
Vaccination is necessary protection, vaccines are safe and well tolerated - and yet some people are skeptical. But: Vaccines are among the drugs that are probably best tested because the safety requirements are high. Keyword "side effects": In vaccinations, so-called vaccination reactions may occur, usually there are fever, redness or swelling at the injection site, which disappear after a short time. Worldwide vaccination programs helped protect millions of people from dangerous diseases. But just because many diseases such as measles, rubella, mumps have become rarer, the knowledge of the harmfulness of infections was lost. This can be clearly seen in low vaccination rates, especially in booster doses for diphtheria or tetanus.