Café au lait, cappuccino, Viennese mélange, cocoa, latte macchiato - what do all these drinks have in common? It's the milk that sets the tone here. Milk is a perishable food. A special process, pasteurization, makes it relatively germ-free for a limited time and thus also conditionally stable. The term "pasteurize" as a synonym for "conserve by heating", is so firmly anchored in our language that we mostly do not think about its origin.
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
The procedure and, in consequence, the naming "pasteurization" go back to the French physicist, chemist and bacteriologist Louis Pasteur. The scientist recognized that tiny, single-celled organisms, so-called microorganisms, multiply or split in decay and fermentation. From this observation developed her first name: "Spaltpilze". Today they are called "bacteria" or "microbes". When heated from 62 to 85 degrees Celsius, these microorganisms are largely destroyed. Higher temperatures (= "sterilization"), while the sterility, but destroy sensitive foods and important vitamins and proteins. Many foods that are fresh for just a short time are now pasteurized. These include sodas, fruit juices and beer, which would spoil faster without heat.
Today, Louis Pasteur is world-famous, but was also honored with fame and highest honors during his lifetime. In 1883 he managed to produce a vaccine against anthrax. Later he developed vaccinations against chicken cholera and rabies. Louis Pasteur is considered a pioneer of "active immunization".