In a balanced diet, there is actually no reason to take additional nutrients in tablet form. However, for many people it is difficult to meet the dietary requirements of calcium (about one gram a day and 1.5 grams from the age of 50) and vitamin D. Especially if, for example, there is a milk allergy or lactose intolerance.
The right dietary supplement
If calcium and vitamin D can not be absorbed through the diet in sufficient quantities, many sufferers turn from osteoporosis to dietary supplements. In order to avoid the consequences of a permanent overdose, one should pay attention to the maximum quantities of certain dietary supplements according to recommendations of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).
In the case of osteoporosis, the following substances, each containing the maximum levels, should be included in a dietary supplement:
- Calcium: 500 milligrams (best as calcium citrate)
- Vitamin D: 20 micrograms
- Additionally useful is magnesium: 250 milligrams
- Possibly. The mixture can be supplemented by: Vitamin A, Vitamin C (maximum 250 milligrams), Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Folic Acid (maximum 200 micrograms), Copper, Manganese, Zinc (maximum 6.5 milligrams), Boron and Chromium
Factors in nutrient uptake
Consuming calcium-rich foods or calcium supplements does not mean that the mineral actually reaches where it can work. So it may come despite normal intake to deficiency symptoms - namely with increased loss, increased consumption or reduced absorption in the intestine. Ultimately, bioavailability determines what proportion of a nutrient is effectively available to the body (influencing factors see table, bioavailability see graph).
Incidentally, pregnancy does not increase the risk of developing osteoporosis in old age.
|Vitamin D||Increases the absorption of calcium in the intestine. Improves calcium balance by influencing kidney function.|
|Vitamin K||Participated in the construction of the skeleton and thus the bone density. Increases indirectly the incorporation of phosphate and calcium in the bones.|
|vitamin C||Essential in the formation of connective tissue and thus also the bone connective tissue.|
|magnesium||Important in the body's formation of vitamin D. Additionally involved in bone mineralization.|
|Fluorine, copper, manganese, zinc and boron||Here an involvement in the structure of the bone is suspected. More detailed knowledge is still missing.|
|Move||Increases bone turnover and thus the incorporation of calcium into the skeleton.|
|light||Boosts the body's own vitamin D production.|
|Oxalate, phytic acid (high-fiber diet), sulfate, phosphate||Bind calcium in the digestive tract and prevent its absorption into the bloodstream.|
|Protein rich diet, salt, caffeine, alcohol||Increase calcium loss via the kidneys.|