With these methods one uses aids, which are placed by the gynecologist or even either in the vagina or on the penis and thereby prevent once or for a longer period of time that the sperm find their way to the egg cells. These aids include, for example, condoms or the spiral.
A condom for men is a protection that is pulled over the rigid limb and prevents the ejaculate from entering the vagina. Properly applied, it is in the medium security range (Pearl Index 2-12).
The female condom ("Femidom®") is a tube that is open on one side and inserted into the vagina by means of a ring (Pearl Index 5-25). It is only available on the Internet or international pharmacies.
Condoms have the advantage of being the only contraceptive to protect against HIV and other infectious diseases.
Pessary, Cervical Cap, Lea Contraceptivum®
Pessaries (Diaphragma) consist of a latex membrane with a flexible wire ring, are inserted into the vagina before intercourse and close the cervix. Combined with a chemical contraceptive (eg spermicide), the Pearl index is 1-4, otherwise it is 20. Pessaries need to be adjusted by the gynecologist.
Similar in appearance and effect is the cervical cap; it only covers a smaller part of the cervix area. The handling is more difficult, the Pearl index is 6. Since 1996, there is the Lea Contraceptivum®, a further development of the cervical cap, which is easier to handle and - also in combination with a spermicide - safer (Pearl Index 2-3 ).
It is small, round, made of polyurethane foam and soaked with a seed-killing substance. It is easy to handle and is shaken like a tampon. He can stay there for up to 24 hours, even with repeated intercourse. His Pearl Index is 5-10.
Spiral, copper chain
The copper spiral (Intrauterine pessary = IUP) is a t- or horseshoe-shaped plastic structure whose middle part is wrapped in copper wire. The copper ions released there are responsible for the contraceptive effect. The sperm are difficult to pass and ova - if they are fertilized - no longer einnisten.
A further development is the hormone spiral, which has been on the market since 1990 and releases progestogens instead of copper. Another, newer alternative is the copper chain, which looks similar to the copper spiral, but is safer and has fewer side effects. Both are used by the gynecologist in the uterus and can remain there for 3-5 years. The security is high with a Pearl Index of 0.05-0.3.
These methods use chemical aids that are inserted into the vagina at least 10 minutes before sexual intercourse. They transform there by the body heat in a tough mucus or foam, thus forming a barrier for the sperm. They also contain substances that inhibit sperm motility or kill it.
They are available as suppositories, foams, ointments, gels, creams or foam sprays. The Pearl Index is between 3 and 20; It is recommended that you combine it with other contraceptives such as condoms or pessaries. Disadvantage is that chemical contraceptives irritate the mucous membranes and thus more easily lead to infections.