In the pioneering days of x-ray medicine patients had to take their cassettes into their own hands, so today patients benefit from a significantly reduced radiation dose with the highest image quality, faster treatment and shorter waiting times. Innovations in medical technology and the use of information technology make a decisive contribution here. That radioactive radiation is highly dangerous for humans, is undisputed.
Radiation protection in medicine
However, there is still no consensus as to from what dosage and in what doses within what time as harmful rays for humans. Nevertheless, since the applied radiation doses in radiation medicine are usually very small, but potentially harmful to the patient and the user, special emphasis is placed on radiation protection.
Basically, tissues are the more radiosensitive, the less differentiated they are and the more frequently their cells divide. According to the decrease in their sensitivity to radiation, the following sequence results for the radiation sensitivity of individual tissues: embryo - lymphatic organs - bone marrow - intestinal tract - oocytes - sperm cells - epiphyseal plates - eye lens - peripheral nerves - muscle tissue.
Basic rules for radiation protection
To ensure radiation protection in practice, there are four basic rules:
- shield the radiation with suitable materials (eg protection of the non-illuminated body parts with a lead apron)
- limit the length of stay in a radiation field (only as short as necessary, eg users leave the room),
- maintain a safe distance to the radiation source
- Use the lowest possible activity of a radiation source for each application
Radiation protection measures are also regulated by law. However, the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) is not limited to medical applications, but also regulates the protection of the consumer in numerous other areas in which radioactive substances can occur (eg food industry).