Therapies in children playful
Only when a child no longer likes to speak, avoids speaking, when even noticeable body movements or grimaces and respiratory disorders are added while speaking, the parents should seek help. "Of course, parents who are unsure whether their child's speech problems are stuttering symptoms may well come to us, " stresses Professor Schade. With the help of appropriate therapy, these children learn to playfully deal with the stuttering better.
Important: an open dealing with the stuttering, whereby also negative feelings like fear and shame should be addressed. "Affected children should learn to deal with the speechless fluids without fear." Good experiences in therapy, relaxed parents, less anxiety and more self-confidence then lead to more fluent speech, "explains speech therapist Hanna Engelmann.
For schoolchildren, not all parents know this, stuttering means a hindrance in the legal sense. This means in a specific case, a "disadvantage compensation", for example, alternatives to oral exams - the Federal Association stutterer self-help eV advises on the corresponding problems in the school.
Therapies for adults
This is different with adults, who usually have to continuously treat their stuttering for a lifetime. Basically, this is particularly important in the orientation of possible therapies, distinguishes two approaches: the so-called "Fluency Shaping", in German "forms of fluid speech". Here special techniques are learned, which change the speech in itself, by being strongly alienated at first. The vowels, for example, are greatly stretched, breathing is controlled, and speech movements are carried out without excessive muscle input. Gradually speaking becomes more natural again, but remains a very conscious because controlled process.
The second therapy is a stutter modification, also known as the Non-Avoidance Approach or Van Riper Therapy. Words that use stuttering are not bypassed, but pronounced consciously and in a controlled manner using speech techniques. This method assumes that one's own fears and negative expectations are reduced in advance.
Both approaches are considered effective, only the right one, the therapist must determine individually. Interestingly, stutterers speak much more fluently when they whisper, talk in time or in chorus, or when they sing. However, when communicative pressure arises as in telephone calls or job interviews, the stuttering occurs increasingly. Hypnosis or psychotherapy are useful, if at all, only for short-term improvements and accompanying speech therapies.
Medications, usually for muscle relaxation, work only as long as they are taken and are not without side effects. The health insurance pay such therapies, of course, those for children. If they are serious, they should always be designed for a longer period of time; they should also offer exercises outside the therapy room - on the street, in specific situations. Aftercare and a relapse program are important - and they can not promise a cure, because they do not exist. But a good and long-term therapy leads to a significant improvement to freedom from symptoms.