In addition to the throwing and running disciplines, athletics also offers jumping disciplines. These jump disciplines are composed of two high jump and one long jump species, whose standards have been repeatedly changed over time. These four disciplines are high jump, pole vault, long jump and triple jump.
In the modern high jump, the highest possible, four-meter-long bar is skipped after a curved start, which falls down at the slightest touch. The world record is 2.45 for men and 2.09m for women. The athlete lands with his back on a soft mat.
The first high jump competitions were held by the Celts. Today's competition rule was already set in England in 1865. Accordingly, it is only allowed to jump with one foot, three attempts per height are allowed and after a failed attempt, the bar must not be lowered. While until 1936 the feet had to cross the crossbar first, today the so-called flop is common, in which the head is the first part of the body.
In general, in all jumping disciplines are complaints of the lumbar spine in the foreground. Furthermore, it can come to the same injury as the sprint by the start. The most common injuries in high jumpers occur in knee and hock joints, in addition often cause back problems (also as a late succession). When jumping off especially the adductors of the swinging leg are endangered. Possible long-term consequences include ankle discomfort and ligament ruptures.
In the case of pole vaulting, the highest possible lath is overcome with a stable pole. The run is on a straight track that is at least 45m long and 1.22m wide. The length and thickness of the bar depends on the size, weight and strength of the athlete.
The jumping with rods was already common in ancient times. While in Crete they jumped with the help of staffs over bulls, the Celts practiced the staffs. Since 1775 German gymnasts organized pole vault competitions. Mats to protect the pole vaulters were introduced only in the 1960s. Even today, the risk of bone fractures among the athletics disciplines in the pole vault is highest.
As the most technically demanding athletics discipline, it is also the most dangerous, such as when the athlete lands next to the mat. Typical injuries to pole vault include shoulder joint dislocations and fractures in the shoulder area. The lumbar spine is also particularly prone to discomfort. In particular, the patella and the Achilles tendon are heavily stressed by the jump. In case of a possible underrun of the bar when jumping off, there is a further risk of injury to the back, more specifically to the spinal musculature.
The long jump is an attempt to get as far as possible after a start-up phase, which is 40-50m for men and 30-40m for women. Each athlete has three attempts to do so, with the best eight receiving another three attempts.
In addition to the ancient Greeks is also handed down by Asian peoples, that they tried from time immemorial in long jump competitions, in the latter, the legs were tightened and the thighs had to be held perpendicular to the ground. Today it is important to keep your feet horizontal and your torso bent.
At the moment of landing, that is, when the foot touches the ground, it is important to push the hips forward as quickly as possible, as points are deducted when landing on the buttocks. (For length measurement, the first impression counts in the sandbox).
At the beginning of the bounce phase, it comes to a braking effect, which causes inexperienced jumpers the risk of joint compression at the knee and the upper ankle. Also the calf muscles and the thigh flexors and extensors often suffer injuries. In addition, it comes to muscle fiber tears, especially on the thighs.
The triple jump was long ignored in Germany, although he is also an Olympic discipline. While in ancient times the summation of three individual jumps was understood by triple jump, the today practiced jumping sequence could be proven for the first time in 1465. Over time, however, the rules of leg sequence have varied over and over again.
Today takes place, similar to the long jump, after a 35 to 42m long start the jump on a take-off beam. The first landing must be done with the same leg that was jumped off, with the second landing following on the other foot and a long jump-like jump closing the movement (also called "hop", "step", "jump"). The footer must therefore be left-left-right or right-right-left.
The risks of injury are usually the same as in the long jump and the sprint, so in particular muscle fiber tears and strains, ankle and knee injuries, and inflammation of the patellar tendon (and especially on the distal patellar pole, which leads to the so-called "Jumper Knee").