Who travels from Central Europe to Africa, must always be aware that the hygiene situation in the country can never be compared with ours! Also in hospitals and doctors is not the same standard as expected in Central Europe.
Tap water is not drinking water. Decoction and / or filtering is absolutely necessary, even for things like brushing your teeth or something similar. Corresponding filters are available for outdoor use in different sizes and price ranges.
Beware especially with ice cubes in drinks! Water from sealed bottles is usually harmless. Milk must always be well boiled. Always wash or peel fruit well. A foreign health insurance with return transport option is highly recommended!
Contagion from contaminated food, drinking water, hands, inadequately cooked or cold food, unpasteurized milk
- Liver diseases (hepatitis A) - vaccination possible and advisable!
- Diarrheal diseases (bacterial, viral, parasitic gastrointestinal infections), including cholera and typhoid
- Polio (poliomyelitis) - vaccination possible and advisable
- Worm infections such as liver and lung gel possible (insufficiently cooked fish dishes)
- Fox and dog tapeworm infections
Infestation by insects (mainly in seasons with heavy rainfall)
- Malaria (nocturnal mosquitoes, Anopheles), depending on the area of low to high risk - Repellentien (mosquito repellent) use, prophylactic drug prophylaxis possible and in high risk areas also advisable!
- yellow fever
- Dengue fever
- Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks)
- Sleeping sickness (transmitted by tsetse flies)
- Rarely with travelers: leishmaniasis (transmitted by sandflies) and filarioses (worm diseases, nocturnal and nocturnal mosquitoes) and other special, sometimes very rare infections - use repellents!
Contagion from sexual contacts
- Transmission of viruses (hepatitis B, HIV and others), bacteria, fungi and many others possible - condoms are highly recommended
Contagion in case of poor hygiene in medical interventions
- Transmission of viruses (hepatitis B, HIV and others) or bacteria and others possible
Contagion due to close contact with patients: droplet infection
- Bacterial meningitis - meningococcal meningitis
- Influenza (seasonal influenza) and other very rare diseases
Contagion from skin contact
- Bathing in fresh water: worm disease (schistosomiasis schistosomiasis), and various bacterial infections - do not swim in stagnant water such as lakes or creeks, prefer chlorinated plants in hotels
- Seawater: red algae ("red tide"), jellyfish
- Barefoot walking on dirty ground: Sandfloehe, Hakenwurminfektion
- Dirty wounds: Tetanus vaccine possible and advisable
Infection by animals
- Rabies (throughout Africa, beware of stray dogs and cats, the fastest possible vaccine on contact with rabies suspected animals); WHO information on rabies.