Treatment of polyps
Small polyps often cause no complaints and therefore remain mostly undetected and therefore untreated. Larger polyps cause discomfort and therefore need to be treated. The therapy can be done by medication or surgery.
Often cortisone is administered in the form of nasal sprays or systemically, ie internally. This can lead to a reduction in growths in smaller polyps, but complete healing is rare. In some cases, antihistamines (antiallergic drugs) can reduce the symptoms. If the cause of the nasal polyps in an allergy, it is important to first determine them by an allergy test (prick test) and then treat it to avoid re-polyp formation.
In most cases, surgery is the treatment of choice, for example, when breathing is severely restricted, the sinuses are inflamed, or one-sided polyps are suspected of having a tumor. The aim of the surgery is to remove the growths and possibly to increase the narrowed access to the paranasal sinuses. For this purpose, the surgeon introduces a metal loop into the nose under local anesthesia, places it around the polypous growths and pulls them together until the polyp is severed.
Alternatively, the polyp can also be removed by means of a laser. Advantages of laser removal are less bleeding, tissue preservation and faster healing - however, a conventional surgical removal may be appropriate in case of suspected tumor, as the tumor can be removed as a whole and then examined by a pathologist for malignant cells.
When the polyps are seated in the sinuses or their connecting ducts, an endoscopic rehabilitation of the sinuses is also performed as part of polyp removal. The paranasal sinus ducts are dilated, making breathing easier and ventilating the sinuses better. This operation is performed under general anesthesia.
Alternative medical treatment
In some cases, the polyps can be reduced by treatment with acupuncture (eg laser acupuncture) and reduce the symptoms. In some cases, homeopathic therapy or bioresonance procedures also help to improve subjective well-being.
Prevention of polyps
Particularly important is the intensive care of the nasal mucosa after surgery or successful medical treatment. These include inhalations as well as nasal douche eg with salt water. The use of cortisone-containing nasal sprays over a longer period of time (several months) is part of the regular aftercare. Sinusitis (sinusitis) is treated with antibiotics and decongestant and expectorant drugs.
If the cause of the polyps was an allergy, it is particularly important to find out and avoid the allergy triggers. If this does not succeed, a re-growth of growths is very likely. In general, the relapse rate in polyps is unfortunately relatively high, about one quarter of the patients fall ill again within a few years.