They are enigmatic, almost magical and above all tasteful - edible mushrooms. Even more, if they were collected themselves. But beware: all too often they are mistaken for poisonous mushrooms, sometimes fatal. There are a few important things to keep in mind so that enjoyment is not a risk to your health.
Mushroom poisoning in history
Among historians there is a presumption that the Roman Emperor Claudius was also a mushroom lover - and had paid his passion with death. Whether his wife or political opponents really enriched the hangman's meal with the extract of the green tuberous toadstool, everything was just an unfortunate confusion or the cause of death was a completely different one: the fact is that mushroom intoxication still occurs today, albeit rarely and rarely with fatal outcome,
Accurate figures do not exist for Germany, as a central register is missing and people with slight symptoms of intoxication do not necessarily represent the doctor. It is estimated that 1-2% of all poisoning is a consequence of fungi and 8% of that is serious.
Many poisonous mushrooms are tasteless
Claudius will have tasted nothing of the toadstool, because that is the dangerous thing about the tasty "mushrooms": The poisons in about 150 poisonous mushroom species are colorless and odorless, tasteless and can not be tested by domestic "test methods" as the blackening of a cooked Expose silver spoon. In addition, even a small amount is enough for many to develop their dangerous effect. The fact that the snail gnaws relish with a mushroom, is no indication of its non-toxicity - the metabolism of snails and other animals is not comparable to that of humans.
Dangerous doppelgangers among the mushrooms
It is not easy to distinguish toxic from non-toxic mushrooms. Many of the approximately 100 edible mushrooms have dangerous doppelgangers, which not only look similar, but also have a pleasant smell. But even boiling does not kill the poisons they contain.
- The tuber-leaf mushroom family has a special flair: The green tuber-leaf mushroom is similar to the forest mushroom, the white pointed-hocked and the white, flat-headed tuber-leaf mushroom are quite similar to the Anis-Egerling or the meadow mushroom.
- Almost everyone knows the toadstool and knows that it is poisonous.
- An inconspicuous and inedible relative, on the other hand, is the panther mushroom, which is repeatedly confused with the edible mushroom or the garlanded pearling.
- Crack fungi and funnel mushrooms such as the fog cap are so inconspicuous that many mix-ups are possible.
- Carbol-Egerlinge are not called in the vernacular "white poison mushroom" for nothing.
- The Kahle Krempling is a special case - symptoms occur only after repeated consumption and are the result of an allergic reaction.
Incidentally, poisoning with tube mushrooms (also known as sponge mushrooms - mushrooms belong eg in this category) are usually mild. In contrast, slippery mushrooms are more dangerous - you really should only eat wild mushrooms if you are absolutely sure that you have not caught anything poisonous.