Often, the medical history gives the doctor some first clues, during the physical examination he can sometimes cause a knocking pain over the flanks. Examination of urine and blood shows signs of inflammation and provides information about renal function. Clarity can also be gained about possible causes. If it is possible to capture small, spontaneously with the urine outgoing stones by means of sieve, can be examined in the laboratory their composition. This provides valuable information on possible causes and useful therapies.
Recognize kidney stones
With the ultrasound examination, stones in the kidney can be detected, and computer tomography can also assess the surrounding structures.
A simple X-ray examination shows only certain types of stone, therefore, usually also injected with a contrast agent (Urogramm), with the renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder can be represented and stones show up as recesses.
More precise results are provided by the direct administration of contrast agent into the ureter during a bladder mirroring. Sometimes the stones can be removed directly during this examination. In case of doubt, the doctor can extend the reflection to the kidney, which is not without danger of complications.
Treatment of kidney stones and urinary stones
Although kidney stones do not cause discomfort, they can lead to complications such as kidney inflammation or kidney failure. Therefore, an attempt is made to prevent further education. Helpful here are:
- high hydration
- physical movement
- a diet adapted to the specific stones and causes
If symptoms have already appeared, the treatment of the kidney stones depends on the current situation. An acute renal colic is treated with anticonvulsant and analgesic drugs, an infection with antibiotics. In two-thirds of those affected, the kidney stones (urinary stones) go away spontaneously. For larger stones or complications, there are several ways of kidney stone removal.
Remove kidney stones
Kidney stones can be removed in different ways:
- Drug therapy: Uric acid stones, such as those found in gout, can be dissolved by means of deacidification of the urine. At the same time, uric acid-lowering tablets are given and the affected person has to change his diet to low-purity diet.
- ESWL (extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy): Stones in the kidney or at the beginning of the ureter can be shattered by external shock waves. The smaller parts thus created can then go off with the urine.
- Reflection of ureter and kidney (ureterorenoscopy) and removal of the stone with a forceps or a basket or the crushing of the stone by laser or ultrasound.
- Direct puncture of the kidney via the skin under ultrasound and X-ray control and smashing the stone on the spot.
- Open surgery: only rarely needed; mostly simultaneous correction of anatomical deformities such as narrowing of the ureter.
Avoid kidney stones through nutrition
The risk of recurring kidney stones is relatively high. The risk of kidney stones forming can be clearly prevented with preventive measures. This includes:
- a daily hydration of two to three liters
- low-protein, low-salt, high-fiber diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables (which inhibits stone formation)
- Achieving and maintaining a normal weight (without radical diets)
- adequate exercise
Whether someone has drunk enough, can be easily determined by the color of the urine: Is it thin and very light, almost like water, the amount of drink is sufficient - this urine can form virtually no kidney stones. It is therefore important to drink regularly. It's best to put one or two bottles of mineral water in a well-visible place, such as the desk. So even in everyday stress, do not forget the fluid intake and can prevent kidney stones.