In addition to throwing and jumping disciplines exist in athletics so-called running disciplines. In athletics, 13 running disciplines are distinguished. These are broken down into three different blocks: Sprint, Mittelstreckenlauf and Langstreckenlauf. These are explained in more detail in the following article.
Sprint is the overcoming of a track in the shortest possible time, that is, below the highest speed to be reached. For both men and women there are 100m, 200m, 400m, 4x100m relay, 4x400m relay and 400m hurdles. In addition, there are hurdles for men of 110m and hurdles for men of 100m.
There is also a distinction between short and long sprint (distances over 200m), where the short course can look back on a tradition as the oldest Olympic discipline. The body converts energy-rich phosphate reserves during the sprint. The risk of injury is given in the sprint, especially in the starting phase and at the end of the course.
The most frequent injuries concern the muscles of the thigh back (here in particular the biceps femoris muscle), as well as muscle injuries of the front side (for example the Musculus rectis femoris). Similarly, sprinters often suffer from ruptures of the Achilles tendons. As a possible long-term consequence of an accumulation of Hallux Rigidus is observed in sprinters - the cause is suspected in the burden of the starting position.
Hurdlers give rise to an additional risk of injury to the sacroiliac joints, lower lumbar spine and abdominal muscles. In addition, shortened adductors are a risk factor.
Middle distance running
As middle distance everything is called between 800m and 1609m (corresponds to an English mile). The Olympic disciplines include the 800m and 1500m races, and the International Athletics Federation also records records of over 2000m, 4x800m relay and 4x1500m relay (for men). Although middle classes are now run by both genders, women have only been admitted to international competitions since the 1960s in this discipline; After a first 800m run of the ladies at the Olympic Games in 1928, one initially assumed too much physical stress for women, as the participating ladies seemed too exhausted.
The middle distance run is a low-injury athletics discipline. The risk of acute injury is low, it is more likely to overload the tendons on the legs, especially the Achilles tendon. In addition, overload and stress can cause fractures. Here especially the metatarsus and tibia are endangered, as well as the femoral neck.
The term long-distance run covers all distances over the English mile. Among the most important disciplines are the 5000m and the 10000m run, the 3000m steeplechase and the marathon. Other rail and road races, cross-country skiing or the lesson are popular long-distance disciplines. The longest athletic track discipline at the Olympics is the marathon with a distance of 42.195 km.
In principle, the risks of injury in long-distance running are the same as those of medium-distance running, although meniscal damage is a typical problem for long-distance runners. Less common are acute meniscal damage than chronic inflammation resulting from wear and overuse.
The ilio-tibial band syndrome, referred to as the "runner's knee", is primarily responsible for long-distance runners with O-legs, as the tendon cord located between the iliac crest and the tibia can easily rub and cause severe pain. Another classic problem area of long-distance runners is the cruciate ligament.