Every bone in our body can theoretically break. However, some bones in our body - especially by falls - are much more prone to fracture than others. There are predetermined breaking points in the body to use a somewhat technical expression that is particularly susceptible to broken bones. Of these, the thigh neck is the best known and most important for everyday life.
Bone fracture of the femoral neck bone
If you imagine the thighbone, it looks like an elongated "r": It has a hook at its upper end, which disappears in the hip joint.
This bone rejuvenation, the femoral neck bone, is particularly susceptible to fracture, as immense forces are applied to this bone area during a sudden twist. So if you fall on your hip joint, the femoral neck is likely to break - the most common adult fracture, especially in winter time!
Arm break and rib fracture
In addition, the bones of the forearm are particularly vulnerable. The impact on frozen, smooth ground and the force acting on the forearm bone when we perform a support movement in the case are so strong that the affected bone breaks. In addition, often fractures of the ribs, the humerus and the ankle occur, and fractures of the clavicle - so-called Klavikulafrakturen - occur frequently.
Broken bones on hand and foot
In a fall from a high altitude or a particularly strong compression force, which acts on the feet and hands, it comes to hard to be cared for hand and Fußwurzelfrakturen. Since the blood supply to the bones in these areas is very difficult, the bones often heal badly together again.
In injuries caused by traffic accidents is often not a body region, but the same number of bones, joints and organs affected - the doctor then speaks of a polytrauma. Often, the bones of the extremities are broken and even the most stable bones like the pelvis are damaged. Pelvic fractures are particularly dangerous because they cause immense blood loss and urgent surgical treatment.
Skull fracture and fracture of the vertebral bones
Vertebral bones are also frequently broken in traffic accidents. There is a great risk that the bone fragments squeeze the spinal cord, which may result in paraplegia or immediate death, depending on the location of the fracture.
Skull fractures also occur only in very strong use of force, while the bruising of the brain tissue can lead to life-threatening bleeding and functional failures.
In addition, there are so-called pathological fractures in which a bone breaks without external action. In this case, the bone structure is changed so that the bone is no pressure load - for example, in bone-altering metabolic diseases such as severe osteoporosis or vitreous bone disease, bone cancer or metastasis in bone often occur pathological fractures.
Bone fracture: symptoms and signs
The bone itself has few nerve endings that transmit pain, but the periosteum surrounding the bone is extremely sensitive to injury and even external pressure - which anyone can try out on their own with a kick or push in front of the rather unprotected tibial bone.
Pain, limitation of movement, and loss of blood depending on the size of the bone, which can be as much as two liters in a femoral fracture and five liters in a pelvic fracture, are typical symptoms of a fractured bone. In addition, the bone ends can injure the surrounding tissue, pierce blood vessels and nerves, and even pass through the skin into the open (a so-called open fracture).
How to recognize a broken bone?
Bone structures can be seen in detail on radiographs: deviations from normal bone structure, irregularities in the marginal contour, even the smallest punctures and detachment of the periosteum from the bone can be detected.
Since the X-ray images are always made in two levels, it is also clear whether there is a bending, shearing, turning or spiral fracture, a compression or demolition fracture. In polytraumatized patients, CT scans provide information about which organs are still affected.