Bones, joints, tendons, and muscles: They keep us upright, bring us from one place to another, and let us perform a variety of movements. But the wear forms of our skeleton are diverse, usually painful and momentous for work and play.
Layout and function
The human skeleton consists of more than 200 bones, usually connected by joints. The articular surfaces are covered with cartilage and synovial fluid - this makes movement possible. Tendons and muscles support the joints and allow the movement of bone in the joint. The skeleton and the muscles keep us upright and allow us to perform a variety of movements - for us, of course, until complaints force us to reconsider our patterns of movement.
The most common pain is the musculoskeletal system. Whether neck, back or knee pain, pain during movement or after a fall, pain in the muscles of a sore throat or falling limb - pain can come in many forms. Back pain can also occur in children, because the weight of the satchel is often above the permitted. The lumbago (also called lumbago) is common and can be triggered in addition to disc problems by a tense back muscles.
In addition to pain, limiting movement is another important symptom of something wrong with muscles or joints. Arthrosis or joint inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis, as well as scarring or bone fracture, which is common in osteoporotic bones or childhood, can lead to restricted mobility.
Pain and limitation of movement in rheumatic inflammation are often associated with swelling and overheating of the affected area. In addition, a conspicuous size loss may occur - not the normal size difference that occurs in each person during the day, but a loss of size as in ankylosing spondylitis.
Anamnesis, inspection and percussion
Anamnesis (ask for medical history):
All complaints can be further limited by specific questions. Especially duration of pain and dependence of the occurrence of the time of day or activity often allow a first distinction between wear disorder or rheumatic inflammation.
Inspection (observation) and percussion (tapping):
In gout and advanced rheumatic disease, the finger and big toe joints are often deformed characteristically. Careful tapping of the spine in Lumbago can indicate whether cervical, thoracic or lumbar vertebrae are involved in the pain process.
Each joint can be bent or stretched at a certain angle. The gentle movement of all joints indicates how much the range of motion is reduced. Especially in the course of the disease, these values are important to check whether the disease continues or whether the therapy is successful.
Osteodensitometry, ultrasound and MRI
With this method, the bone density is tested - especially important in osteoporosis. Blood and hormone studies then help to get to the root cause of the increased bone loss. Blood tests also help in rheumatic diseases to find the body's own substances, with which the immune system attacks the body (autoimmune antibodies).
X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):
The X-ray shows many diseases of the skeleton of the bone (broken bones, attachments and reconstructions in joint-near bone zones, spinal deformities). With Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), disc damage is very easy to detect. Ultrasound reveals joint and muscle changes. Sometimes you have to look into a joint - this requires an arthroscope.
Rheumatism: Four groups of this disease
Between 200 to 400 diseases of the musculoskeletal system are summarized as rheumatism. The four main groups include:
- degenerative diseases such as arthrosis of the hip joints, discomfort of the Achilles tendon, tennis or mouse arm and disc damage
- inflammatory rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, joint involvement in psoriasis or during and after an infection (Lyme disease and Reiter's disease)
- Metabolic diseases with rheumatic complaints such as gout, osteoporosis - which can occur in men as well as women - or rickets
- Soft tissue rheumatism such as fibromyalgia
A more detailed description can be found in the article "Rheumatic Diseases". Injuries to bones, joints, and ligaments ranging from a slight sprain to a rupture or ligament tear are among the diseases of the skeletal system. There are typical dangers both in childhood with the green wood fracture, then during the sport active midlife as well as in old age - be it due to excessive demands (often in case of femoral neck fracture after a fall) or overestimation of one's own abilities (sports injuries).
From flatfoot to backache
Malformations of the joints, such as hallux valgus or of bones to each other, as they occur in flat foot or hollow-Senk-splayfoot, are common diseases. In addition to infections of bones or joints, bone cancer also occurs on the skeleton - or there are dislocations (metastases) of breast or colon cancer, which lead to severe pain in the spine.
In back problems, there are plenty of exercises that strengthen the back. Whether with pezziball or thera-band, back exercises or muscle training - the possibilities to do something for the weak point back are great. However, physical activity should be determined prior to extensive physical activity to prevent additional injury. Nordic walking or cycling are sports that protect the back. But here too: too much can cause damage - and fitness-addicted should no one.
In sports injuries, you should use the PECH rule (break, ice, compression, high camps), enzymes can also help. Enzymes or collagen hydrolyzate are also given in case of joint wear or knee pain so that surgery can become superfluous.
Except for bone fractures, surgeries are often the last option when medication and exercise therapy are exhausted. Whether it is an outpatient or an extended stay with hospitalization, there are many novel treatment concepts such as an intervertebral disc prosthesis in the cervical region. Selected clinics offer a computer-aided healing water therapy or the combination TCM, thermal baths and art therapy for rheumatism or knee damage.
A calcium-rich diet that also contains lots of vitamin D and vitamin C benefits the bones and connective tissue. Likewise, silica helps the body to regenerate. Food supplements, as they are often offered to athletes, are usually superfluous.
Overweight: strain on bones and joints
Obesity puts additional strain on bones and joints - so it's better to break down every kilo too much. Of course, there is a special procedure for each disease with medication or surgery - you can find more information on the particular disease. Therapy and prevention differ little from each other: exercise and less sedentary activities help to prevent back pain.
All back exercises help to relieve muscle tension and tension. The health insurance funds promote the health of older members through sports programs such as MOBILIS. Even for children, something is done with the "Boney." Fitness - even in the workplace - and the back-friendly sitting in school and office prevent back pain and at the next shoe purchase not forget the health of the foot bones.
In order to prevent osteoporosis, a calcium-rich diet (a lot of dairy products) should be taken for granted at a young age. Especially Coca-Cola as a popular teenager drink reduces the bone density sustainable.