The insulin treatment in diabetics is done by classic syringes or so-called insulin pens. Thanks to modern materials and advanced cannula technology, the injection is uncomplicated and virtually painless. Nevertheless, patients with diabetes should follow some guidelines for proper insulin injection. Only in this way does it form the basis of an optimal metabolic control.
The right syringe
First, make sure you have selected an insulin syringe that matches the insulin concentration (U40 or U100). For insulin pens only cartridges with U100 insulin are offered. If a delay insulin or mixed insulin is used, it is important to swirl the bottle or pen just prior to injection until the insulin is completely mixed and uniformly milky-white. As a rule, you have to swirl the insulin 20 times.
Then disinfect the rubber stopper of the insulin bottle. To attach, turn the bottle upside down and add two more units in addition to the desired amount of insulin. By tapping on the cannula, the air in the syringe is transported in the direction of the cannula and injected together with the excess insulin. Multiple insulin withdrawal leads to a negative pressure in the insulin bottle. This can be avoided by previously injecting the amount of air into the bottle that corresponds to the desired insulin units
The right spraying technique
The insulin injection takes place subcutaneously, in the fatty tissue of the subcutaneous tissue. A disinfection of the puncture site is not necessary with normal personal hygiene in the home environment, since the insulin contains additives with a disinfecting effect. A fold of skin is formed with the thumb and forefinger and the cannula of the insulin syringe or the insulin pen is inserted vertically. People with thin adipose tissue should choose a 45-degree insertion angle or use a shorter cannula.
To prevent permanent damage to sensitive skin tissue, the puncture site should be changed each time. Usual puncture sites are the fatty tissue on the abdomen - keeping it at a distance of 2 cm from the belly button - as well as the thigh insides - minimum distance to the knee: 5 cm and the lateral buttocks. Insulin injected on the stomach has the fastest effect. The thigh is recommended for delay insulin, as the insulin gets here slower into the blood.
Since the insulin effect is also subject to daily fluctuations, at a certain time of the day, it should always be injected into the same body region in order to achieve a consistent effect. Heat (eg a bath) or rubbing of the injection site (eg waistband, belt) improve blood circulation and in this way accelerate insulin absorption and thus the insulin action.
Slowly inject the insulin and leave the cannula in the skin for at least 5 seconds before pulling it out. The insulin injected into the subcutaneous tissue forms a depot, which is gradually diffused into the capillaries and transported into the body.