Numerous endogenous agents transmit messages and affect metabolism, growth and reproduction. They are formed in many places of the body and released into the blood or tissue. They are integrated in a finely tuned control system. Disorders can be the cause of a wide variety of ailments and illnesses.
Hormones serve to transmit information within the body. They are usually formed by specialized cells in hormone glands and released into the blood. Because they move with the bloodstream or through tissue, they take much longer than nerves to get to their destination. Once there, they bind to specific receptors (receptors) and initiate a specific chemical reaction or they migrate into the cell and activate there genes in the nucleus.
Classification - diversity in a complex system
Hormones can be classified according to different criteria:
- education center
- Place of action and function
Some forms are formed by nerve tissue, for example in the brain and called neurosecretory hormones. Most common are glandular hormones that are formed and released in endocrine glands such as the adrenal, pancreas, and thyroid glands.
The third type are tissue hormones that are formed in tissues that perform many other functions, and often act directly there. An example is the gastrointestinal gastrin for digestion. The place of origin often shows in the name, for example, thyroid hormones.
Hormones can be derived from proteins (peptide hormones, for example insulin) or from steroids or fatty acids (steroid hormones, for example estrogen).
Place of action and function
The highest regulatory authority is the hypothalamus in the midbrain. He checks the hormone concentration in the blood and decides whether it needs to be strengthened or throttled. Instead, he sends messengers to the subordinates who are in the same house in the pituitary gland: releasing hormones spread the message that further work must be done, inhibiting hormones ensure that overtime is celebrated.
When the signs are on work, sales representatives swarm into the blood, everyone in the region for which he is responsible. They are easily recognizable by their name for all involved: the ending "-trop" shows that they come from the pituitary front lobe, the first part designates the area of responsibility, or the hormones that are produced there. Unfortunately, only experts understand this name - who else knows that thyroid is the thyroid, so thyroetropin acts on them? That's why there are nicknames - abbreviations like ACTH that are easier to remember and better to read (such as adrenocorticotropic hormone).
In any case, these kind ladies and gentlemen are happy to bring the good news to the factories that the short-time work has ended. That's where production is boosted and hormones start to roll off the assembly line. These pass through the - sometimes clogged - traffic arteries to the end customer and develop their direct effect by announcing their good news. Market researchers of the upper regulatory authority examine the number of hormones in traffic as well as the reaction of consumers and let the circulation adjust accordingly. Incidentally, even at the lower levels, market research is carried out and production is often adjusted on the small official route before the center of power learns about it. As in the market economy: all in all a matter of supply and demand.