Skin typology and classification into the classic skin types

Delicate like velvet and silk, fine pored, well supplied with blood and very elastic - this is the ideal skin type. But only very few people can be happy about that. Combination skin, oily and dry or sensitive skin are the skin types that characterize real life. How our skin looks and feels depends on sebum production. The sebum encloses the moisture and distributes it on the skin surface.

Combination skin performs best

Depending on the stress and tasks, the skin is different in the different parts of the body. And that applies also to the face. Most of the skin in the middle of the face is rather greasy, the remaining parts rather dry. The greasy zones run from the chin over the nose to the forehead and spread out over the eyebrows in a T-shape.

Such a combination skin is most likely to meet the requirements of the environment. In the T zone, which must be intensively protected against the sun, heat, cold, wind and rain, numerous sebaceous glands are present in the skin tissue. The talc produced by them covers the skin with a protective film. In the marginal zones, which are less exposed to the environmental influences, there are fewer sebaceous glands.

Sebum protects the skin

Sebum (or Sedum) is an important factor in balancing our skin's environment and protecting our skin from dehydration. In addition, it protects against skin diseases, germs and external influences such as chemicals. It is produced by the sebaceous glands - about 1 to 2 g daily - and is a supple, greasy mix: tallow is made up of about 45% triglycerides and 15% free fatty acids, 20 to 25% waxes, 10 to 15% squalene and low Proportions of cholesterol and remnants of sebaceous cells.

Normal activity of the sebaceous and sweat glands is called normal skin. The overproduction of sebaceous glands is referred to as seborrhoea (also referred to in the cosmetics industry as water-in-oil type or W / O type), the hypofunction of the sebaceous glands gives the appearance of dry skin (oil-in-water type, O / W type).

Every skin looks different

Younger people are prone to oily skin, from the age of 45 outweighs the normal to dry skin type. The explanation for this is simple: After birth, sufficient producing sebaceous glands are present in the skin, but they regress during the first year. Therefore, small children have a dry skin. During puberty, the sebaceous glands are fully developed by the influence of male hormones. From then on, the production of sebum increases constantly up to the age of 25, then decreases slightly until the age of 40 and then decreases continuously.

Every skin looks different: the type of skin depends on the production of sebum, the nature of the tallow, the metabolism, the production of moisture and the ability of the skin to retain water. Responsible for the appearance are besides many other factors:

  • heredity
  • Hormonal influences (puberty, menopause, pregnancy, pill, etc.)
  • Nutrition, lifestyle (metabolism)
  • Cosmetic measures
  • Vegetative influences, diseases
  • Weather conditions (climate, humidity, UV radiation)
  • aging process

Wrinkles - traces of time

At the age of twenty, in the early thirties, a slow and initially inconspicuous aging process begins. Over the years, it then increasingly leads to wrinkles. These most visible signs of aging are the result of a natural process that takes place in different phases: first, fine lines form between the nose and mouth, the eyes and the forehead. Due to recurring facial movements, these so-called facial expressions dig in. Because the elastic fibers in the connective tissue lose their elasticity, in the skin surface remain tiny furrows.

The collagen fibers, which along with the elastic fibers permeate the connective tissue, decrease over the years. It can store less moisture in the skin, it does not look so smooth and velvety. The ability of the skin to renew itself constantly decreases. As a result, the horny layer is not as intact as in young skin. The sebaceous and sweat glands work no less intensively, the acid mantle changes and the skin becomes drier.

skin types

Basically, you can distinguish the following types; especially important in practice are the greasy and dry skin types:

  • Dry skin: is usually a very delicate, fine-pored skin that suffers from dehydration (term sebostasis)
  • Oily skin: usually shines strongly and looks rather thick and coarse-pored
  • Mature skin: the skin of older people with increased wrinkles and wrinkles
  • Normal skin: characterized by its complication, is neither too dry nor low in moisture
  • Acne skin: a large-pored skin with papules and pustules
  • Sensitive skin: tends to dryness and redness and is fine-pored
  • Combination skin: characterized by a greasy T-zone (forehead, nose and chin) and dry cheeks
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