Every second person learns to know the annoying symptoms of hemorrhoids in the course of his life. Nonetheless, most sufferers conceal their pains due to shame. The intestine of humans consists of different parts: it starts at the stomach as a small intestine, becomes the large intestine and at the end to the rectum and leads as an anus to the outside. At the transition from the rectum into the anus is a circular vascular pad, the hemorrhoidal cavernous body. This forms together with the sphincter the sealing ring of the anus. The sphincter prevents the escape of solid stool, the cavernous body the escape of liquids and gases.
Internal and external hemorrhoids
If this system is disturbed or the blood flow obstructed, the vascular cushion may increase. This condition is referred to in the jargon as hemorrhoids (internal hemorrhoids) or Hämorrhoidalleiden. In the hemorrhoids flows bright red, arterial blood.
Anal thromboses, commonly referred to as external hemorrhoids, on the other hand, are not hemorrhoids in the true sense of the word, but harmless but painful nodules on the anal margin caused by a ruptured vein. When they heal, they often result in small skin lobes, which are known as scarves.
How does hemorrhoids come about?
A particularly common cause of hemorrhoids is a low-fiber diet, which together with lack of movement leads to constipation. As a result, the stool is pressed hard and long, which overstretches the blood vessels in the rectum and increases the vascular cushion. With a permanent overstretching finally bulges form in the rectum and anus.
In addition, there is often a hereditary connective tissue weakness. A congenital lack of elasticity promotes the formation of sagging. Also, chronic diarrhea (laxative) can cause hemorrhoids as the cause, because the thin-bodied chair, the fine motor skills of the intestinal obstruction system is not trained enough.
Hemorrhoids in pregnancy
Possible causes of hemorrhoids include pregnancy. Many women have problems with hemorrhoids during pregnancy as the child presses on the rectum. This obstructs blood flow and overstretches the hemorrhoidal plexus. The same problem arises when overweight.
Hemorrhoids in old age
In old age, hemorrhoids are more common because the elasticity of the tissue diminishes and the vessels fill up more with blood. The normal reflux is reduced. Vascular nodes are favored in this way.
Even a predominantly sedentary activity promotes hemorrhoids, because when sitting blood can accumulate below the hip.
The symptoms of hemorrhoids range from itching, wetness and burning on the anus, to bright blood on the stool and severe pain. Although the complaints can be alleviated by hemorrhoids ointments or suppositories, which are available at the pharmacy without prescription. Nevertheless, in the case of hemorrhoids a visit to the doctor is unavoidable - especially bleeding can also be an indication for a colon tumor. This intestinal tumor must be professionally excluded in any case.
Hemorrhoids are divided into four stages, depending on severity and symptoms.
- Grade I: The hemorrhoids are not externally visible and not palpable and express themselves only in a slight swelling, which is sometimes accompanied by itching and pain in the anal area. The vessel cushions are already enlarged.
- Grade II: The hemorrhoids are squeezed out during stool evacuation, but retract by themselves. Striking is sometimes the departure of bright red blood with the chair. Heavy itching, burning and phlegm secretions are other features at this stage.
- Grades III and IV: The hemorrhoids can no longer retreat on their own, but at best be pushed back (grade III). The severe pain and burning are accompanied by inflammation of the anal mucosa.