Glossary of fat metabolism disorders

atherosclerosis

Arteriosclerosis, major cause of cardiovascular disease (eg, myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral circulatory disorder).

cholesterol

Fat-like molecule, is formed by the body and absorbed through the diet. Basic substance for the construction of cell walls, hormones, bile acids etc. The name comes from the Greek of chole = bile and stereós = hard, firm and means translated "gall fat". It was discovered there as early as the 18th century as a major component of gallstones.

Cholesterol synthesis inhibitors (CSE inhibitors)

Lowers the production of cholesterol in the liver by inhibiting a necessary enzyme. Synonym: statins.

chylomicrons

are the largest of all the lowest density lipoproteins. They are very rich in triglycerides, are formed in the intestine and transport the fats taken in with food from the intestine to the liver.

HDL cholesterol ("good cholesterol")

High-density lipoprotein (lipoprotein) absorbs excess cholesterol from the body's cells as well as from the vessel wall and returns it to the liver.

Heart attack

Hypoperfusion of the heart muscle as a result of reduced blood supply in atherosclerosis (see above)

Coronary heart disease (CHD)

Angina pectoris (chest tightness), heart attack and sudden cardiac death are the consequences of atherosclerosis on the coronary arteries called coronary heart disease. CHD can manifest itself in other clinical pictures: cardiac wall dysfunction, decreased cardiac output (heart failure) or cardiac arrhythmia. All forms of coronary heart disease is based on a restriction of oxygen supply to the heart muscle.

LDL cholesterol ("bad cholesterol")

Low-density lipoprotein (lipoprotein) brings cholesterol to the body's cells. Once saturated, the cholesterol can settle in the vessel walls.

lipid-lowering agents

Medicines that lower the lipids in the blood:

  • Fibrates lower triglycerides (VLDL, chylomicrons) and increase HDLCholesterin
  • Nicotinic acid lowers the triglycerides (VLDL, chylomicrons) and increases HDLCholesterin
  • Statins lower LDL cholesterol
  • Plant sterols / stanols lower LDL cholesterol
  • Exchanger resins lower LDL cholesterol
  • Cholesterol absorption inhibitors lower chylomicron cholesterol and the LDLCholesterin.

lipoproteins

consist of lipids (fat) and proteins (protein), in this form are cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood transportable. On the whole, a distinction is made between several lipoproteins according to their density: HDL (high-density lipoprotein, "good cholesterol"), LDL (low-density lipoprotein), VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides) and chylomicrons (triglycerides).

plaques

Deposit in the vessels.

Primary hypercholesterolemia

Increased blood cholesterol levels can be hereditary. This is called familial hypercholesterolemia.

stroke

Loss of brain tissue as a result of acute circulatory disorder.

thrombosis

Occlusion in the blood vessels through a blood clot.

triglycerides

Neutral fats, important energy stores and basic building blocks of the body. Increased triglyceride concentrations together with cholesterol also promote arteriosclerosis.

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