Doing more for the health and performing the check-ups: Men and women every two years after the age of 35 are entitled to a health check-up for the early detection of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and kidney disease. This basic health check consists of a comprehensive record of the medical history and pre-existing conditions as well as the survey of whole body status (head, neck, chest, lungs, abdomen, height, weight, skin color, muscle tone, balance, reflexes).
Overall history and blood test
The medical history of the immediate family is also raised. Individual risks that may arise from genetic predisposition are taken into account. In the accompanying blood test, the total cholesterol and glucose levels are measured. The urine examination for protein, glucose, erythrocytes, leukocytes, nitrite is also part of the "all-round appointment". The preventive check-up can be carried out by any general practitioner, general practitioner or internist.
Laboratory tests of blood and urine
- Blood sugar (glucose): An elevated blood sugar level can be a sign of diabetes (diabetes mellitus). Normal values: Fasting blood sugar: 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg / dl).
- Cholesterol (CHOL): Cholesterol comes in two components: The "good" HDL cholesterol transports blood lipids out of the body tissue and provides some protection against arteriosclerosis, while the "bad" LDL cholesterol deposits on the arterial walls and increases the risk For cardiovascular diseases, the total cholesterol in the blood is determined during the routine check Normal values: up to 200 mg / dl blood.
- Triglycerides (TG): Triglycerides are among the blood lipids. High levels of triglycerides, especially when combined with high LDL cholesterol levels, are a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Normal fasting: up to 150 mg / dl blood.
- Creatinine: During every muscle movement, the metabolite creatinine is produced, which is excreted in the urine via the kidneys. How much creatinine circulates in the blood depends on the functioning of the kidneys and on the available muscle mass. An excessive level of keratin can therefore indicate a kidney problem. Normal values: Women: 0.6 to 1.1 mg / dl blood; Men: 0.7 to 1.3 mg / dl.
- Uric acid: Uric acid is the final product in the metabolism. The body also produces uric acid from foods such as meat and offal. If too much uric acid accumulates in the body, or if it is inhibited by alcohol, it deposits in the form of crystals in the joints or kidneys. Painful gouty knots and kidney stones are the result. Normal values: Women: 2.5 to 5.9 mg / dl blood; Men: 3.5 to 7.1 mg / dl.
- Red blood cells (erythrocytes): The red blood cells transport the oxygen from the lungs into the whole body. Too few erythrocytes are indicative of anemia (anemia), too high an amount to interfere with blood cell formation. Normal values: Women: 3.5 to 5.0 million per microliter of blood (ml / yl); Men: 4.3 to 5.9 million / y.
- White blood cells (leukocytes): The white blood cells play an important role in the defense against pathogens. A change in the leukocyte count may indicate infection or inflammation. Normal values: Men and women: 4, 000 to 10, 000 per microliter of blood.
Knowledge and prevention
The health examination is crucial for the medical care of patients and should not be underestimated. The regular examination offers the opportunity to identify potential risk factors early and to treat them accordingly or at least to observe them. Even many small changes in almost all areas of daily life can prove to be a major change in the direction of illness in terms of individual health.
Almost every second participant in a screening test actually detects a disease or corresponding risk factors. If they are detected early, these factors can usually be resolved by behavioral changes or illnesses treated in a timely manner.
More information through initiative
The health check-up 35 and above does not include the total cholesterol level, but a number of other important blood levels. For example, those who, for example, would like to inform themselves regularly about their liver enzymes without the medically justified necessity, must bear the costs themselves.
In addition, at the age of 40 you should regularly measure your intraocular pressure every 2 years; from 40 years even every year. The glaucoma examination is performed at the ophthalmologist, but the costs are covered by the health insurance companies only in justified exceptional cases.
Do not forget the dentist! Diseased teeth are often associated with other diseases, especially from the rheumatic type. Shifts in the jaw can be the cause of headaches and neck problems, so going to the dentist is definitely worth it.
The aim of all precautionary examinations is to record the onset of disorders in good time so that severe and, above all, permanent functional disorders of the organs can be prevented by initiating a therapy. Timely diagnosis is and remains the best treatment in most cases: the sooner you can treat, the better your chances of recovery.
Cancer prevention is particularly important
This is also the motto of the numerous programs for cancer screening, which are supported by health insurance companies. While women are examined for cancer of the genitalia from the age of 20 and from the age of 30 for breast cancer, the men at the age of 45 years the prostate examination is in the foreground.
From the age of 55, a colonoscopy can be performed in the context of colorectal cancer screening in men and women. If there is no medical need for a previous repeat examination, it will be repeated every ten years at the expense of the health insurance company.