From the Egyptians to the Teutons - each time not only had its own culture, also the body care changed. It was always an expression of a self-understanding of culture and had certain peculiarities.
The Egyptians about 3000 to 300 BC. are one of the oldest civilized peoples. Her high level of culture was also evident in clothing, artistic hairstyles and body care and cosmetics. Men wore shaved or short head hair until shaven. Black woolen wigs, leather or felt caps were common. The women also had wigs next to their own hair. In the early days the pageboy head was common, later came the longhair with middle parting, many single weaves or curly hanging cocks (heated clay curlers can be considered precursors of electric hair curlers), headband with lotus flower, balsam cone. For elegant Egyptian women there were artfully ironed wigs (tresses on lattice garb). The hair color was worn black or dyed red with henna.
Body care: baths and massages with fragrant oils, care with perfumed ointments.
Cosmetics: Yellow-painted faces, strongly emphasized eye shape (eyelid line in the corner of the eye), green-colored eyelids, pursed lips, palms and nails with red henna, were considered ideals of beauty.
Ancient - Greeks
Ancient Greece created the foundations of Western culture. In the period around 1500 -150 BC BC, heyday 5-4 century BC. (classic golden age) were architecture, poetry and insights, in all areas of science witnesses of the high cultural level. But the measure of all things was man. He strove for harmony and health of body and mind. Clothing and hairstyle, body care and cosmetics, as well as sports, were all part of this endeavor.
Poets and scholars wore long hair and beard hair at that time.
Athletes and soldiers were seen in short, curly hair and clean-shaven. Fashion youngsters had half-length, wavy hair and were also clean-shaven. During the archaic period (1500 - 500 BC), the women wore long open wavy hair with brow or held by a clasp. The classical time (from 500 BC) emphasized the back of the head, knot hairstyles with middle parting. The hair was held with ribbons and nets. Also on display were tiaras, as well as calamistrum waves and "Blondierungsversuche" (bleaching with saffron). In the Hellenistic period (from 300 BC), the hairstyles were artfully knotted and oriental influenced. The body care included baths, massages with fragrant oils, gymnastics, plenty of sleep and diet.
It was fashionable to make up the face snow white with lead white (toxic) and to emphasize the lips in Menningrot. There was a great preference for fragrances derived from natural essences.
Ancient times - Romans
About 500 BC 500 BC: The Romans took over the culture of the Greeks. Her power was expressed in strong self-confidence, lush lifestyle and luxury. In the time of the Republic (about 500 to 30 BC), men had a full hairstyle and a trimmed beard. The women had knot hairstyles with nets. This is just one of the three hairstyle styles the women wore in many variations. During the imperial period (from about 30 BC), the man had cut short the main hair, carelessly styled from the vortex, wavy or curly. Also clean-shaven in the "tonstrina" (shaving tube). The women wore either a titus head (short, crownless curly hairstyle) or braided hairstyles with snake curls and pinned neck hair. The top of the head was a diadem of dense calamity curls. Blond was a fashion color, with bleach attempts had little success. Therefore, wigs were worn from blond Germanic hair. Body care: Baths in goats and donkey mare milk should keep the skin soft and supple. In addition, they took sweat baths, massaged and anointed. Superfluous and annoying body hair was removed by the epilator (slave). Cosmetics: Many valuable facial care formulas have been handed down. They used precious oils, honey, bran and fruits. Powder and lipstick were also used by men.
Around 900 - 1250 AD, the art style of the early Middle Ages is Romanesque. Its characteristics are the round arch, heavy, massive columns and mighty walls. During this time men wore short-cut hair and usually had a beardless face. With the 11th century, the nobility influenced fashion more strongly. The half-length hair was cut in the form of the pageboy, slightly wavy or curly. The beard was trimmed round or pointed. Monks wore a tonsure and short-cropped hair.
Compared to the men, their hairstyles were judged by their stance: girls wore open hair with a pile (wreath or flower wreath), sometimes with a veil. There were also differences in married women. Because they were weaving or twisting their long hair, sometimes colored ribbons were incorporated and the braids were attached. In the second half of the 12th century, the hair was covered. The women wore brick crowns with givers. Toiletries: Public baths were set up, which then also served the entertainment (music, entertainment, etc.). The Bader took over haircuts, shaving, hair and nail care, tooth extraction and wound care.
Middle Ages - Gothic
The new architectural style "Gothic" is an expression of the deeply religious attitude of the people. He emphasizes the vertical. Pointed arches, pillars and tracery are its characteristics. Apart from large cathedrals such as Freiburg, Ulm and Cologne, council, guild and community centers are being built. The hairstyles coined at this time about 1250 -1450 AD. her style. Men had half-length, slightly wavy or curly hair. However, here the hairstyle form has hardly changed since Romanesque. The chin was shaved smooth. For women, the hairstyle played a minor role. For example, girls wore long wavy hair or pigtail hairstyles. By comparison, married women covered their hair with imaginative hoods such as the hennin, horncap, butterfly, or turban hood. Forehead and blown hairs were plucked or shorn to emphasize the tall, smooth forehead. The most popular hair colors were blonde and black. The color red-as a sign for witch-was frowned upon. At this time, the public baths lost in prestige. Due to vicious bathing and the spread of diseases they were partially closed. Thus, in addition to the bathing tubs barbershops were created in which shaving, haircut and wig production were taken. Bader and Barbier performed wound and dental treatments.
Antique medieval Germanic
In the time around 1600 v. Chr. BC -800 AD, men and women wore different hairstyles. Also in the field of personal care and cosmetics, there were some differences compared to today.
Men had long hair as a sign of the free man, with slaves and dishonorable bald-shaven hair.
Typical tribal hairstyles in this period were, for example, braids, Swebenknoten, ponytail hairstyle. The beard man wore a clean shaven in the Bronze Age and a full beard in the Iron Age. With plaited woolen nets at the nape of the neck, combing combs and hanging pigtails, one could recognize the women in the Bronze Age (1600-800 BC). In the Iron Age (from about 800 BC) loosely falling hair and middle parting was announced. The body was cleaned with soap in warm or cold baths and then treated with lanolin (wool fat from sheep). Annoying body hair was already removed with tweezers. Equipment for nail care and ear spoon were also available. Colored decorative cosmetics were not known until the time of the Romans' meeting.