Endoscopy in diagnostics ...
Endoscopy is the generic term for all medical procedures that end in "-skopie" and whose name is derived from the mirrored area. Gastroscopy (gastroscopy), rectoscopy and colonoscopy (endoscopy and colon), laparoscopy (abdominal), bronchoscopy (respiratory tract), urethroscopy and cystoscopy (ureter and urinary bladder), arthroscopy (joint).
Common to all is that through body openings (naturally existing or made by the doctor) with a hose-shaped device into the inside of humans one looks. Depending on the design of the endoscope and depending on the purpose, the tube contains a large number of different devices. At the tip of the endoscope, a miniature camera is usually installed, which illuminates the examination area and transmits its images on the electrical path through the tube on a monitor. In this way, photos and video recordings of the inside of the body are possible. In addition, a variety of small devices can be accommodated in the examination head of the endoscope, with which, for example, samples can be taken from the examined region.
... and in therapy
While the main use of endoscopy was initially limited to finding out about a human disease, the increasing miniaturization of optical and surgical devices soon enabled therapeutic activity in the organ being studied. For example, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract can be stopped by means of a laser or endoscopy polyps on the vocal cords or in the large intestine. Narrowed sites, for example in the esophagus or in the bile duct, can be dilated, stones that obstruct the outflow from the gallbladder, removed or destroyed. In recent years, operations are no longer performed on the opened body, but endoscopically as "keyhole surgery". Due to the possibility of introducing the smallest devices through endoscopes, the number of surgical and other therapeutic interventions is almost unlimited.
What can be examined by endoscopy?
Endoscopic examination methods have become indispensable in many medical fields, here are some examples:
- Internal Medicine: For the doctors dealing with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the examination of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and large intestine is everyday business. The gallbladder and pancreas are also open to examination for a special combination of endoscopy and X-ray examination called ERCP.
- Orthopedics: Orthopedic surgeons can use arthroplating (especially knee replacements) to examine their patients, and in these examinations, a cut must also be made by which the endoscope can be brought to its destination.
- Surgery: If the interior of the abdomen is to be examined, a laparoscopy is performed. Here, the abdominal cavity is opened by a small incision and inflated with the aid of a hose with air, so that the doctor with his endoscope can look at abdominal and pelvic organs. This procedure is often used to remove the gallbladder.
- In gynecology, the uterus is viewed with hysteroscopy. The urologists use urethroscopy and cystoscopy to examine the urethra and urinary bladder. And also the ear, nose and throat doctors do not do without the optical tubes: they examine in the panendoscopy mouth, nose, paranasal sinuses and throat.