Which forms are there and what is being investigated?
1. "Simple" ultrasound examination
This is used in almost every medical discipline. The institutions are judged on their size, location, delineation to neighboring structures and their tissue. Detected are tumors, accumulations of air or fluid, injuries, bleeding or congestion, stones, calcifications, cysts and abscesses. The most important fields of application are listed below, but sonography is also indispensable in other areas such as ophthalmology, otolaryngology or neonatal medicine.
- Abdominal ultrasound is an irreplaceable method for many problems in the abdominal and pelvic area. Whether liver, kidney; Pancreas, gall bladder or vessels - almost everything can be assessed. In addition, blood tests, tissue samples or other imaging procedures may be necessary. So that the intestinal gas does not interfere with organs and tissue, the patient should be fasting and receive defoliant drugs before the examination. The examination of the entire abdominal cavity takes about 15-20 minutes.
- Thyroid: Sonography is an important part of thyroid diagnostics, for example, in cases of suspected cancer, inflammation or dysfunction and can be performed without any special preparations. Usually laboratory and functional tests are added.
- Gynecology: Also in gynecology the ultrasound examination is indispensable. The female pelvic organs are examined in conspicuous findings of palpation, pelvic pain, menstrual disorders, for follow-up on tumor disease, for pregnancy monitoring and in the treatment of infertility. This can be done via the abdominal skin - if possible with a full urinary bladder - or through the vagina - if possible with an empty bladder. In addition, the ultrasound examination of the female breast in addition to palpation and mammography has a high priority.
- Joints and soft tissues: The orthopedists appreciate the ultrasound diagnostics. Although bones are difficult to assess, joint structures, bursae, tendon sheaths and muscles are all the better. Coughs, inflammations, cysts, dislocations or muscle tears - the experienced examiner has a wide range of possible findings. For small joints, the first attempts at ultrasound are made again: the hand or the foot is placed in a water bath for examination, since the numerous protrusions and depressions can not be adequately straightened with gel.
- Heart: Sonography (echocardiography) also fulfills an important function in cardiology, especially beside the ECG. It provides information on the structure, size, shape and function of the heart and vessels. Whether the suspicion of inflammation, heart valve defects, muscle or vascular changes clarified or the new heart valve is checked after a transplant - usually the sound is sent through the chest wall into the body (transthoracic). Less commonly, the transducer is introduced into the esophagus via a probe (transoesophageal) as in gastrointestinal reflection and placed next to the heart. This may be necessary, for example, in the case of severely obese or patients with pulmonary emphysema. Doppler procedures (see below) and further cardiac examinations are performed as needed.