For early detection are simple urine test sticks, which can be used by the person concerned. The typical discoloration (positive result) occurs when the excess blood sugar is released into the urine via the kidney.
In principle, diabetes can be easily determined by repeated measurements of sugar levels in the blood (for example drops of blood from the fingertip). If the blood glucose readings in the gray area between a clear increase and a norm (fasting below 100 mg / dl) and after the meal below 140 mg / dl, additional test methods are used. These include, for example, the creation of a blood sugar day profile and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). If diabetes is diagnosed, it must be investigated whether it may be due to other causes or circumstances. Examples include gestational diabetes, pancreatic diseases, certain medications and other causes (see also Special Types of Diabetes).
Type 2 diabetes is treated according to a step-by-step approach: First, it attempts to encourage the patient to exercise and lose weight. In conjunction with a special diabetes diet, this will in many cases already achieve a normalization of blood sugar. If the patient does not get motivated or does not work for other reasons, the drug therapy begins. Initially, oral medicines (oral antidiabetics) are used. These drugs include the so-called absorption inhibitors, sulfonylureas, biguanides and insulin sensitizers. If the treatment with these oral preparations - possibly also with several at the same time - does not normalize the sugar levels, insulin or insulin-like drugs are used. Insulins are available in many forms of preparation with different lengths of action.
Conventional Insulin Therapy (CT)
The daily requirement for insulin is used in conventional (conventional) insulin therapy with 2 mixed insulin injections (morning and evening). The amount of food and the physical activity are adjusted to it.
Intensified Insulin Therapy (ICT)
The intensified insulin therapy according to the basic bolus concept consists of the non-food basic requirement (basal insulin, usually as a long-term insulin) and the additional required amount of insulin (bolus insulin as fast-acting normal insulin given), which must be injected before eating. The amount of food consumed and the planned physical activity are calculated. The intensified treatment leads to a better adjustment of the blood sugar, but is more complicated for the patient, because he has to measure the blood sugar more often and inject more insulin. Not every patient is eligible for this form of treatment.
insulin Pump therapy
Another form of insulin treatment is the implantation of a small pump under the skin, which automatically delivers the required amount of insulin into the blood (insulin pump therapy). Alternatively, the pump is worn on the body, the insulin passes through a hose (catheter) in the body.