The earlier a finding (polyp or cancer) is detected, the smaller the procedure and the better the prognosis. The aim of the therapy is to cure the person affected by his cancer (curative therapy). Age and general condition as well as the extent of the tumor are important influencing factors.
At the heart of this is still surgery. The surgeon seeks to maintain the anal sphincter while removing the affected portion of the colon to maintain normal defecation. But this is not always possible, especially if the cancer is sitting in the lower part of the intestine or has already spread extensively. Then the end of the bowel is led through the abdominal wall via an artificial colostomy. The metastases (for the most part in the liver) are also surgically removed if possible.
In recent years, as a further therapeutic options, the overheating (hyperthermia) by microwaves or with the introduction of chemical agents directly in the metastasis have been added. The combination of surgery with subsequent chemotherapy may improve the prognosis. It is hoped that in the future a cure will be possible even with extensive disease findings.
If surgery is out of the question, an attempt is made to relieve the symptoms (palliative therapy). This is done by maintaining the intestinal patency (bottlenecks may possibly be irradiated with laser) and by the use of chemo and X-rays.
The right diet
Various substances in the diet is said to have an intestinal protective function, such. As vitamins (vitamin E, C, folic acid) and acetylsalicylic acid. However, some of the studies yield contradictory results - in some cases, even more cancers were observed with high-dose vitamin administration. Instead of taking dietary supplements, it is therefore better to pay attention to a versatile and balanced diet: low-fat, carbohydrate and high fiber, plenty of vegetables and fruits, plenty of fluids, ideally green tea. This guarantees adequate vitamin intake without the risk of overdose and rapid passage of the stool through plenty of fiber.
Also, exercise should prevent - at least it supports the intestinal activity and helps against obesity.
Cancer prevention and colonoscopy
Many experts recommend a colonoscopy at regular intervals (every three years) as part of early detection in addition to the annual rectal examination from the age of 50 years. The regular examination of the stool for blood should also be part of the cancer screening.
Successfully treated patients must undergo a precisely predetermined tumor follow-up, which, among other things, is evidence of CEA. Through these measures, a recurrence (recurrence) of the cancer can be detected and treated early.