What are the causes of high blood pressure? The cardiovascular system flexibly adapts to different requirements - for example, heart activity and thus pulse rate and blood pressure change under physical stress. Also normal are fluctuations in the daily routine - with peak blood pressure in the morning and in the late afternoon and low blood pressure at noon and at night. For this to work smoothly, there is a complex control system, which is mainly controlled by hormones. Especially important in the regulation of water balance and blood pressure is the kidney. The control system can be disturbed by various causes and thus lead to constantly elevated blood pressure values or strong blood pressure fluctuations.
Hypertension: causes determine form
Depending on the causes, two forms of hypertension are distinguished - primary (also: essential) hypertension and secondary hypertension; There are also special forms with temporary causes:
- Primary hypertension (80-90%): Here, certain hereditary factors as causes cause the elasticity of the vessels decreases with age. As a result, the heart has to pump more, so build up a higher blood pressure. In addition to the genes, several other risk factors play a role in this form. Above all, unhealthy diets, obesity, stress, alcohol, smoking, diabetes as well as lipid metabolism disorders are to be mentioned as possible causes.
- Secondary hypertension (10-20%): Organ disorders are considered to be causes of hypertension. These include anomalies of the cardiovascular system (for example congenital heart defects such as aortic coarctation), kidney disorders that lead to reduced blood flow (for example, renal artery stenosis) and disorders of the endocrine system (for example, hyperthyroidism, hormone-forming tumors).
- Special forms: In pregnancy hypertension, the hypertension occurs only temporarily during pregnancy. The causes of drug-induced hypertension are certain drugs; Hypertension usually disappears after discontinuation (especially in the case of: pill, rheumatism, antidepressants, cortisone preparations).