Hypertension - diagnosis

The most important instrument for diagnosing hypertension is the sphygmomanometer. If multiple rest measurements are ambiguous, a 24-hour measurement can be performed for a diagnosis to correlate blood pressure values ​​with activities. Important in the initial diagnosis is also to rule out secondary hypertension. This can eventually be cured by eliminating the causes. For the diagnosis of hypertension belongs in the episode also that the doctor regularly examines the person concerned. In doing so, he pays special attention to the organ systems that are frequently damaged in hypertension.

Classification of hypertension

The guidelines of the German Hypertension League currently provide the following classification for blood pressure values ​​based on European recommendations:

categorySystolic (mm Hg)Diastolic (mm Hg)
Optimal<120<80
normal120-12980-84
High Normal130-13985-89

Category "Manifest Hypertension"

categorySystolic (mm Hg)Diastolic (mm Hg)
Grade 1 hypertension (easy)140-15990-99
Grade 2 hypertension (moderate)160-179100-109
Grade 3 hypertension (difficult)≥ 180≥ 110
Isolated systolic hypertension (further classification also in 3 degrees)≥ 140<90
  • If systolic and diastolic blood pressure fall into different categories, the higher one applies.
  • An especially high risk exists when isolated systolic hypertension is associated with particularly low diastolic blood pressure (60-70 or lower).
  • The information is usually valid only under rest conditions, since under physical stress, the blood pressure also increases in healthy people. If the blood pressure rises disproportionately only under exercise, ie beyond the normal adaptation reaction, one speaks of high blood pressure.

A "manifest hypertension", as the physicians call the morbidly elevated blood pressure, is therefore present at a systolic value from 140 mm Hg and / or a diastolic value from 90 mm Hg - provided that it was repeated several times on different days under standard conditions, ie Rest, measured. This definition applies without age limit. Incidentally, this form of blood pressure measurement is based on the Italian physician Scipione Riva-Rocci (1863-1943), therefore the abbreviation RR (according to Riva-Rocci) is usual for the blood pressure measured on the arm.

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