Asthma therapy involves two different strategies: preventing the onset of an asthma attack and treating the acute seizure. The treatment depends on the severity of the disease and is tailored to the individual case. The ultimate goal is to prevent possible late damage by keeping the frequency of asthma attacks as low as possible and trying to reduce the hypersensitivity of the bronchi. In an acute asthma attack, bronchodilator drugs and / or cortisone-containing drugs are administered. Since inhalation preparations are no longer sufficient in severe cases, the drugs often need to be injected. In severe cases, oxygen, intubation, ventilation and intensive care in the hospital may be necessary.
Bronchial asthma: drug treatment
First, measures should be taken which directly address the triggering cause. So if you have the allergic form of asthma, you must avoid the allergens. In the non-allergic form, every person should be well protected against inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. Only when these measures are insufficient, complaints must be treated with medication. The doctor focuses on the severity of the disease and treats you according to a defined level scheme.
There are various medications used
- Drugs that directly relax and relax the narrowed airways: bronchodilators such as terbutaline, salbutamol, theophylline and ipratropium bromide
- Medications that affect the chronic inflammation: so-called glucocorticoids such as Budenoside
- Medicines to reduce the hypersensitivity to the triggering agents: antiallergic agents such as cromolyn sodium
- Medications that improve the clogging of viscous mucus: bromhexine or acetylcysteine
Often different preparations have to be taken together. Many drugs are sprayed as an inhalation spray (metered dose inhalers) in the inhaled air and act directly on the irritated and constricted bronchi. Other medicines are in tablet form.
Important for patients is participation in patient education. There you can ask questions about asthma and learn how to use metered dose inhalers properly. In addition, through information and exercises, you will be given a deeper understanding of your condition and your fears of potential emergencies will be reduced. Contact with other people makes it easier for many patients to deal with the disease.
Asthma: self-control and treatment
The most important self-monitoring instrument is the Peak Flow Meter. During the examination, different values are measured during the respiratory activity of the patient. On the one hand, this allows one to determine the individual course of asthma on a daily basis and, on the other hand, to determine an optimal adaptation of the dosing times. However, the measured values are highly dependent on the cooperation of the patient.
As complementary therapeutic means relaxation techniques such as respiratory therapy, autogenic training and supportive psychotherapy may be mentioned. Especially the combination of general measures, medical and psychotherapeutic treatment is increasingly used by patients as a useful supplement. The common goal of the doctors and therapists is to avoid everyday problems and to enable undisturbed participation in school lessons, sports and games, especially for children.
Important note: Patients with bronchial asthma can provide unrestricted physical and mental health services with expert medical care and a healthy lifestyle.
Asthma: avoid or reduce allergens
If a trigger can be identified, try to avoid the allergen as consistently as possible. Under certain circumstances, the separation of a hairy or feathered housemate, if animal hair or feathers are responsible for the allergy. Because this is often very difficult, the animal should at least not be left in the bedroom.
It may also be necessary to remove carpets from the home to reduce the number of dust mites. Dust mites are combated by washing the sheets once a week at high temperatures. In addition, reduce the humidity of the apartment. The mites do not feel well in dry air. Avoid unnecessary dust collectors such as stuffed animals.
If such remedial measures are unsuccessful or are allergens that are difficult to avoid, there is the potential for hyposensitization treatment.