The word antibiotics comes from the Greek and means "against life". But it is not the person who takes them by the collar, but the germs that make life difficult for him. Antibiotics are still a miracle weapon that can save lives. However, they must be used properly.
How antibiotics work against bacteria
There are many microorganisms that cause infections - especially bacteria and viruses, but also fungi and others. But antibiotics are only effective against bacteria! That's because bacteria and viruses are very different. Bacteria grow up to 0.002 mm, have their own metabolism and can be bred on artificial nutrient media. Viruses, on the other hand, are about a hundred times smaller than bacteria and can not exist on their own, they rely on so-called host cells.
Antibiotics attack, among other things, the cell wall or the metabolism of bacteria - against viruses, however, that nest in the human cells, they can not do anything. This knowledge is particularly important in the context of colds: These are mainly caused by viruses - and then no antibiotics help.
Very important: An antibiotic must always be used up to the end of the given intake time. The prescribed application, amount of active ingredient and time of administration are adjusted by the doctor to the present infection and possibly existing allergies and comorbidities. If recovery occurs after the first few days, this indicates that the antibiotic is effective. Nevertheless, the remedy must always be taken as long as the doctor has prescribed. Only then will all bacteria be destroyed and resistances of the germs avoided. Other important revenue regulations are:
- The prescribed intervals between receipts must be complied with. This is the only way to ensure that the level of active ingredient in the body is kept constantly high. "Three times a day" means one dose every eight hours.
- Take antibiotics with water. Antibiotics should be taken with water as milk or other foods can reduce the effect. It is recommended to drink a whole glass of water. There should be at least two hours between the consumption of milk / milk products and taking the antibiotics.
- Exact intake time. There are now different classes of antibiotics. For this reason, there can be no general rules for taking time. Some antibiotics must be taken on an empty stomach, others are to be eaten. When exactly your medicine should be taken, tells you your doctor or pharmacist; You will also find this information on the leaflet.
- Interactions. Anyone who also takes other medications, should ask for possible interactions with the doctor.
Swallow large tablets better
Antibiotics - especially in higher doses - are often very large and may often, for. B. because of certain tablet coatings, not be crushed (can be found in the package leaflet).
However, many people find it difficult to swallow large pills. If the application can not be changed to another type of preparation such as juice, some tricks will help:
- Even before taking a drink of water, so that the mucous membrane is well moistened.
- Then place the tablet on the tongue as far back as possible and rinse with a full glass of water.
- Slightly tilt your head forward (!) When swallowing.
Side effects: antibiotics and diarrhea
Antibiotics can also cause side effects by their mode of action. For humans useful bacteria live z. B. in the oral cavity, but also in our intestines. There they ensure that the food is properly digested. Anyone who has to take an antibiotic combats not only the dangerous, but also the beneficial bacteria. So z. B. the intestinal flora out of balance. Disorders such as soft stools or even diarrhea are not uncommon when taking antibiotics.
Normally, after treatment has been completed, normal bowel function is quickly restored. However, anyone who has problems can acquire special preparations for the regeneration of the intestinal flora in the pharmacy, eg. Yeast cultures from Saccharomyces boulardii or bacterial extracts from Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Escherichia coli.
Disposal of antibiotics
Do not keep opened packages of antibiotics! First, there are different bacteria that are also treated with different drugs; Secondly, an open pack will never meet the above-mentioned revenue criteria. It is therefore: to have infections cleared by a doctor; Do not just take antibiotics for suspicion!
For many bacteria antibiotics no longer work. The reason: the pathogens have become resistant to the drugs. In many cases, this is due to too careless use of antibiotics. If z. B. the drug is discontinued prematurely or the patient does not follow the instructions for use, resistant bacteria can survive and become resistant to the drug, so insensitive to the antibiotic. That's why antibiotics are so important to keep the prescribed amount at the right distance over the specified treatment period.
- Take antibiotics regularly and in sufficient dosage
- Do not stop antibiotic too early.
- No self-medication with antibiotics.