Allergy - which types of allergies are there?

What allergies are there?

There are many different types of allergies. Depending on how the allergens enter the body, the following types of allergy are distinguished.

Types of allergy

  • Inhalation allergy (via inhalation, eg pollen, dust mite feces, molds, chemical substances eg in floor coverings, particulate matter, protein in animal hair or feathers, medicines or essential oils for inhalation)
  • Ingestion allergy (via the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, mostly as a food allergy, for example, by animal protein in eggs or milk; soy, nuts, citrus fruits, spices, very rarely as a drug allergy by drugs such as penicillin),
  • Contact allergens (via the skin, eg animal hair, metals such as nickel, latex): usually occurs as an acute skin lesion within 12-48 hours at the site of contact
  • Injection allergens (by injection, eg insect venoms from wasps or bees, contrast or narcotic drugs)
  • Tree and grass pollen mainly fly from February to May or from April to September.
  • Molds need about 80% humidity and a temperature around 20 ° C. They are most active in spring and autumn, when the rooms are heated and the weather is humid.
  • Mites feel most comfortable when the humidity is 70-75% and the temperature is in the range of 20-25 ° C. Especially at night, patients suffer from allergic complaints.
  • Foods also hide many allergens, as they often process milk and chicken egg whites. Diets that deliberately exclude certain foods point the way.

Depending on how strong the response of the immune system to the allergen, the complaints range from annoying to life-threatening. An allergic reaction can be particularly dangerous if the bronchi or the circulation react violently. The narrowing of the bronchial tubes leads to asthma-typical attacks of respiratory distress. The circulation can collapse in an allergic reaction within a short time. One then speaks of a - life-threatening - allergic or anaphylactic shock.

The allergic reactions can take place on all borders and surfaces of the body and cause there acute and chronic inflammations. Thus, the range of possible allergic reactions is large and non-specific. Irrespective of the type of allergens, it ranges from skin reactions to gastrointestinal complaints and respiratory distress to allergic shock. That's why finding the triggers is often so difficult.

How is the allergy treated?

  • The number and origin of allergenic substances are hardly manageable. Today, about 20, 000 substances are known that can trigger an allergy. Accordingly difficult is the medical diagnosis. If you suspect an allergy, you should always talk to your doctor.
    A targeted treatment of the allergy is important because allergies can lead to chronic diseases.
    Which substance triggers the allergy, can be clarified in many cases by an allergy test.
  • First and most important step: Avoid contact with the allergenic substance.
  • Often a so-called hyposensitization is possible. In this method, the patient is given an ever higher dose of the allergen until the body tolerates the substance.
  • As an allergic person, always carry an allergy passport with you, so that you can be safe even in emergency situations.
  • Fast-acting antiallergic drugs help in the acute case.
  • Calcium tablets help to prevent allergies and reduce the allergic reaction.
  • Even with hay fever there are proven drugs for prevention.
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